We know that Corona has become a massive threat to our lives, each country and organization are working towards developing a medicine or vaccine. The coronavirus victim number is increasing rapidly every day, due to this, lives are lost, jobs are being lost. and people are under tremendous mental pressure. so it has become extremely important & necessary, that vaccine is developed and lives are saved. So that the world again starts working normally. There are few organizations that are in different stages of coronavirus COVID 19 vaccine development. So here I am providing you the update on COVID 19 – corona vaccine progress.
Number of Vaccine in Different Stages
More than 145 research organizations are working towards developing the vaccine. Generally, it takes years of research and study to develop a vaccine, but researchers/Scientists are fast pacings the process to make it in time, which will be effective and safe.
HOW VACCINE TESTING PROCESS WORKS
PRECLINICAL TRIALS – In this phase, the Scientist gives the vaccine to animals like mouse or monkeys. once its effects on animals, it can be moved to the next level.
PHASE 1 SAFETY TRIALS – In this phase, Scientists give a vaccine to a small number of people to check the dosage and safety and also can check whether it boosts immunity.
PHASE 2 EXPANDED TRIALS – In this trial, a scientist gives a vaccine to hundreds of people who are split into groups like childrens and elders to check if vaccine acts differently in them. Further, it also tests the vaccine’s safety and ability to boost the immune system. Once its successful, the vaccine moves to the next step.
PHASE 3 EFFICACY TRIALS – In this phase, a scientist gives a vaccine to thousands of people to check how it works and also wait to check if people can get affected. This trial determines whether the vaccine can protect against the virus.
APPROVAL – Authority/Regulators in each country examine the trial results and decide whether to vaccine van be approved. During the pandemic like Corona covid 19, Authorities may give emergency use authorization before giving formal approval.
COMBINED PHASES – To fast pace the vaccine testing is done in mixed phases like simultaneous Phase 1 & Phase 2 trials.
Type of Vaccines
There are different types of approach researcher are using to develop vaccines. Below mentioned are the kind of methods are used to create vaccines.
- Genetic Vaccines – In this method, The Vaccine that use coronavirus genes to provoke an immune response.
- Viral Vector vaccines – In this method, the virus is use to deliver coronavirus genes into cells to provoke the immune system.
- Protein-based Vaccine – In this method, coronavirus protein or protein fragment used to provoke an immune response.
- Whole–Virus Vaccine – In this method, the Vaccine uses a weakened version of coronavirus to provoke the immune system.
- Repurposed Vaccine – In this method, Vaccine is already in use for other diseases, that can use to protect from coronavirus.
Vaccine In Progress
Here, we are giving you the information about the organizations which are using the Genetic vaccine method to develop the vaccine.
Bharat Biotec & Indian Council of Medical Research & National Institute of Virology – India based company, called Bharat Biotec in association with Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Virology, has designed the vaccine called Covaxin. Phase 1 and phase 2 trials are beginning in July. The Indian Institute of Medical Research has reportedly envisioned that vaccine would be ready for public use by August 15, 2020. People aware of the vaccine process are skeptical about the deadline.
Moderna – The U.S. govt has awarded the company almost $500 million in funding to develop the vaccine. The patient trial is underway. The company is trying to have phase 3 trials in July 2020 and planning to have vaccine doses ready by early 2020.
BioNTec & Pfizer & Fosun Pharma – The German company BioNtech has agreed with American company Pfizer and Chinese company Fosun pharma to develop a vaccine. It launched clinical trials of its vaccine in the U.S. and Europe. They have announced that the Phase 1 & Phase 2 trial produced antibodies against the virus. While Some also experienced the soreness in arm and sleeplessness. According to Pfizer CEO, they will start delivering vaccines in October 2020.
Imperial College London & Morningside- Imperial college of London and Morningside has formed the company called VacEquity Global Health to manufacture and distribute the vaccine. They started the Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials on June 15th, 2020.
Zydus Cadila – This is the second Indian company after Bharat Biotec is working on the Coronavirus vaccine. On July 3rd, they announced the approval to start human trials phase 1 and phase 2.
Anges & Osaka University & Takara Bio – Recently, Japanese company Anges in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio, announced that they had started safety trials (phase 1 & phase 2).
Inovio – kicked off its vaccine trial in April, they have interim data of experiments, which shows no adverse effect on volunteers and measured immune response in 34/36 candidate. The company is starting in phase 2 and phase 3 trials soon.
CureVac – The German company has started the phase 1 trials.
Genexine – The Korean based company has started the testing safety of vaccine and planning to start phase 2 trials.
Academy of Military Medical Science & Suzhou Abogen Biosciences & Walvax Biotechnology – The Chinese based organizations are about to start their safety trials. The study on monkey shown the positive outcome.
Sanofi and Translate Bio – The French manufacturer Sanofi in partnership with Translate Bio have announced that they have completed the preclinical trials and are moving to phase 1 trial.
Oxford University & AstraZeneca – The Swedish-British AstraZeneca has agreed to make an experimental inoculation developed by a researcher at Oxford. The vaccine is in phase 2 and phase 3 trials and may deliver the emergency vaccine in October 2020.
Cansino Biologics – The Hongkong listed Chinese company in partnership with the Institute of biology at the Academy of Military Science published promising results from phase 1 trials. and also, the unpublished data of phase 2 trials have shown the healthy immune system, which has lead to the Chinese military approved it as “Especially needed drug.”
Gamaleya Research Institute – The Russian organization have started the phase 1 trial in June 2020.
Johnson & Johnson & Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center – Johnson and Johnson have announced that they are starting phase 1 and phase 2 trials in July end 2020.
Massachusetts Eye and Ear & Novartis – Phase 1 trials are set to begin in late 2020.
Merck & IAVI – The American company Merck is the only company that has approval on the Ebola vaccine. The method used in developing the Ebola vaccine used in the corona vaccine. Merck has partnered with IAVI. Right now, its in preclinical trial.
Merck & Themis Bioscience – Merck is also working with Austrian firm Themis to develop a vaccine and its in preclinical trial.
Vaxart – Vaxart Vaccine is a tablet that will deliver coronavirus genes into the cell. The company is planning for a phase 1 trial.
Novavax – The American based company is developing a vaccine from a microscopic particle of coronavirus protein. The company has already started phase 1 and phase2 trials.
Clover Biopharmaceuticals & GSK & Dynavax – These three companies are developing vaccines from coronavirus protein and are about to start phase 1 trial.
Anhui Zhifei Longcom – This Chinese based company has started the phase 1 trial in China. This company is part of the Chongqing Zhifei Biological Products and has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences of China.
Vaxine – The Australian vaccine has started the phase 1 trial.
Baylor College of Medicine & Texas Children Hospital – The vaccine is in the preclinical trial.
University of Pittsburgh – the University of Pittsburgh is developing the vaccine, which is in a preclinical trial called PittCoVacc.
The University of Queensland Australia & GSK & CSL – The University of Queensland of Australia in association with GSK and CSL is starting the phase 1 trial.
Sanofi & Gsk – Sanofi is testing technology that is already in use for flue shot, with GSK providing some of the ingredients, patient trials could start in the second half of the year.
Wuhan Institute of Biological products – The chinese based company has already moved into phase 3 trials in June.
Institute of Medical Biology – The chinese based institute has started the phase 2 trial.
Sinovac – The Chinese company is into phase 1 and phase 2 trial and planning for phase 3 trial in China and Brazil.
Murdoch Children Research Institute – The Murdoch Children Research Institute is conducting the phase 3 trial and also doing many other experiments to see if the vaccine can work on Coronavirus. The vaccine developed in the Repurpose vaccine category. This vaccine is already is used from tuberculosis.
I hope the Vaccine experiments get success as early as possible and we will be able to defeat this virus.
Sources – World Health Organization, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases.